[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to study the mechanism of biomass accumulation and distribution of nutrients in Camellia oleifera at seedling growth stage. [Method]The growth indicators and biomass and nutrient contents of leaf, stem and root of 150 Camellia oleifera plants were determined at seedling growth stage. [Result]The results showed higher biomass in aboveground plant parts, amongst which leaves had the highest biomass accumulation. The seedlings were grouped into various grades according to their length, amongst these groups, the seedlings with height ranging from 14.00-15.90 cm were highest in number （38.67%） and their biomass occupied the highest percentage （34.19%）. The root, stem, and leaves of plant were found to accumulate highest N content, followed by K and Ca contents, Cu and B were the lowest. The N and Mn contents showed highest accumulation in leaves, while P, K, Cu, Zn, Fe and B contents accumulated more in the roots. The variance analysis results indicated significant differences in N, K, Mg, Cu, Mn and B contents in root, stem and leaves. [Conclusion]The leaf of Camellia oleifera had the highest biomass at seedling stage and the plant biomass increased significantly with the growth of seedlings. Significantly different uptake and accumulation of different nutrient elements in root, stem and leaves will help in understanding the growth and development of Camellia oleifera in relation to particular element, and provide the reference on fertilization at seedling stage.